The Letter of Paul to the


Chapter      1

Greetings from Paul

1From[1] Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by God’s will, to his holy and faithful people[2] in Ephesus[3] who are in union with Christ Jesus. 2May grace and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ be yours!

The Many Blessings of Salvation

3May the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ be praised![4] He has blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blessing[5] in the heavenly realm, 4just as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world to be holy and blameless in his presence. In love 5he predestined us for adoption to himself through Jesus Christ, according to the pleasure of his will,[6] 6so that we would praise[7] his glorious grace that he gave[8] us in the Beloved One. 7In him we have redemption through his blood,[9] the forgiveness of our offenses, according to the riches[10] of God’s[11] grace 8that he lavished on us, along with all wisdom and understanding,[12] 9when he made known to us the secret of his will.[13] This was according to his plan that he set forth in Christ[14] 10to usher in[15] the fullness of the times[16] and to gather up all things in Christ, both things inheaven and things on[17] earth.

11In Christ[18] we were also chosen when we were set apart beforehand[19] according to the purpose of the one who does everything according to the intention of his will.[20] 12He did this so that we[21] who had already fixed our hope on Christ might live for his praise and glory. 13You, too, have heard the word of truth[22], the gospel of your salvation, and have believed in him. You were sealed in him with the promised Holy Spirit,[23] 14who is the guarantee of our inheritance until the redemption of God’s own possession,[24] to his praise and glory.

Paul’s Prayer for the Ephesians

15Therefore, because I have heard about your faith in the Lord Jesus and your love[25] for all the saints, 16I never stop giving thanks for you as I mention you in my prayers. 17I pray that[26] the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father most glorious,[27] would give you a spirit of wisdom and revelation[28] through knowing Christ.[29] 18Then, with the eyes of your hearts[30] enlightened, you will know the hope of his calling, the riches of his glorious inheritance[31] among the saints, 19and the unlimited greatness of his power for us who believe, according to the working of his mighty strength.[32] 20He put this power to work[33] in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand[34] in the heavenly realm. 21He is far above every ruler, authority, power, dominion, and every name that can be named, [35]not only in the present age but also in [the one][36] to come. 22God[37] has put everything[38] under his feet[39] and has made him the head of everything for the good of the church,[40] 23which is his body,[41] the fullness of the one who fills[42] everything in every way.[43]

Chapter      2

God Has Brought Us from Death to Life

1You [ ..][44] used to be dead because of your offenses and sins, 2in which you once lived according to the ways of this present world[45] and according to the ruler of the power of the air,[46] the spirit that is now active in those who are disobedient.[47] 3All of us once behaved like[48] them in the lusts of our flesh,[49] fulfilling the desires of our flesh and senses. By nature we deserved wrath,[50] just like everyone else. 4But God, who is rich in mercy, because of his great love for us[51] 5even when we were dead because of our offenses, made us alive together with[52] Christ (by grace you have been saved),[53] 6raised us up with him, and seated us with[54] him in the heavenly realm in Christ Jesus.[55] 7He did this so that[56] in the coming ages he might display the limitless riches[57] of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus. 8By that grace you have been saved through faith. This does not come from you. It is the gift of God 9and not the result of works, so that no one can boast. 10For we are his masterpiece,[58]created in Christ Jesus for good works that God prepared long ago to be our way of life.[59]

All Believers Are One in Christ

11So then, remember that at one time you were Gentiles by birth[60] and were called “the uncircumcision” by what is called “the circumcision” made in the flesh by hands.[61] 12At that time you were without Christ, excluded from citizenship in Israel,[62] and strangers to the covenants of promise.[63] You had no hope and were in the world without God. 13But now, in Christ Jesus, you who were once were far away have been brought near by the blood[64] of Christ.

14For it is he who is our peace.[65] In his flesh[66] he made both groups one by tearing down the wall of hostility[67] that divided them.[68] 15He did away with the Law with its commandments and regulations so that he could create in himself one new humanity[69] from the two, thus making peace, 16and could reconcile both groups to God in one body[70] through the cross,[71] on which he killed the hostility. 17He came and proclaimed peace for you who were far away and [for you] who were near.[72] 18Through him, both of us[73] have access to the Father in one Spirit.

19That is why you are no longer strangers and foreigners[74] but fellow citizens with the saints and [members][75] of God’s household. 20You have been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone.[76] 21In him the whole building is joined together and rises into a holy sanctuary[77] in the Lord. 22You, too, are being built together in him into a dwelling place of God in the Spirit.

Chapter      3

Paul’s Ministry to the Gentiles

1For this reason I, Paul, am the prisoner of Christ Jesus for the sake of you Gentiles. 2Surely you have heard about the responsibility of administering God’s grace that was given to me on your behalf, 3and how this secret was made known to me through a revelation, just as I wrote about briefly in the past. 4By reading this, you will be able to grasp my understanding of the secret about Christ.[78] 5In previous generations, this secret was not[79] made known to people[80] as it has now been revealed by the Spirit to God’s[81] holy apostles and prophets: 6the Gentiles are fellow heirs, fellow members of the body, and fellow[82] sharers of what was promised[83] in Christ Jesus through the gospel.

7I have become a servant of this gospel according to[84] the gift of God’s grace that was given me by the working of his power.[85] 8To me, the very least of all the saints,[86] this grace was given so that I might proclaim to the Gentiles the immeasurable wealth[87] of Christ 9and help everyone see how this secret, which was hidden for[88] ages[89] in God who created all things, has been at work. 10He did this so that[90] now, through the church, the wisdom of God in all its variety might be made known to the rulers and authorities[91] in the heavenly realm. 11This was in keeping with the eternal purpose[92] that God[93] carried out through Christ Jesus our Lord, 12in whom we have boldness[94] and confident access through his faithfulness.[95] 13So then, I ask you not to become discouraged because of my troubles on your behalf. They are your glory!

To Know Christ’s Love

14This is the reason[96] I bow my knees[97] before the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ,[98] 15from whom every family[99] in heaven and on earth receives its name.[100] 16I pray that God would give you,[101] according to his glorious riches,[102] strength in your inner being[103] and power through his Spirit. 17Then Christ will make his home in your hearts through faith, and you will be rooted and grounded[104] in love. 18This way you will be able to understand, along with all the saints, what is wide, long, high, and deep[105]19that is, you will know the love of Christ, which goes far beyond knowledge, and will be filled with all the fullness[106] of God.

20Now to the one who can do infinitely more than all we can ask or imagine according to the power that is working among[107] us—21to him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus to all generations,[108]forever and ever![109] Amen.

Chapter      4

Christ’s Gifts to the Church

1I, therefore, a prisoner in the Lord[110], encourage you to live in a way[111] that is worthy of the calling to which you have been called.[112] 2With all humility and gentleness, along with patience, accept one another in love. 3Do your best to maintain the unity of the Spirit by means of the bond of peace.[113] 4[There is][114] one body and one Spirit. In the same way, you were called to the one hope of your calling.[115] 5There is one Lord, one faith, one baptism, 6one[116] God and Father[117] of all, who is above everything, through everything, and in everything.[118]

7Now to each one of us grace has been given according to the measure of Christ’s gift. 8That’s why the Scripture says,[119]

“When he went up to the highest place

he led captives into captivity[120]

and gave gifts to people.”[121]

9Now what does this “he went up” mean except that he also had gone down[122] into the lower parts of the earth?[123] 10The one who went down is the same one who went up above all the heavens so that he might fill everything.[124] 11It is he who gifted some to be apostles, some to be prophets, some to be evangelists, and some to be[125] pastors and teachers. 12Their purpose is to perfect the saints, to do the work of ministry, and to build up the body of Christ[126], 13until all of us are united in the faith and in our knowledge about God’s Son, and until we attain mature adulthood and the full standard of development in Christ.[127] 14Then we will no longer be little children,[128] tossed like waves and […][129] blown about by every wind of doctrine[130], by people’s trickery, or by clever strategies that would lead us astray.[131] 15Instead, by speaking the truth in love, we will grow up completely into the one who is the head,[132] that is, into Christ. 16In him the whole body is united and held together[133] by every ligament with which it is supplied.[134] As each individual part does its job, the body’s growth is promoted so that it builds itself up in love.

The Old Life and the New

17So I tell you and insist on[135] in the Lord not to live any longer like the Gentiles live,[136] thinking worthless thoughts.[137] 18They are darkened in their understanding and separated from the life of God because of their ignorance[138] and hardness of heart. 19Since they have lost all sense of shame, they have abandoned themselves to sensuality and practice every kind of sexual perversion[139] without restraint. 20That is not the way you came to know Christ! 21Surely you have listened to him and have been taught by him, since truth is in Jesus. 22Regarding your former way of life, you were taught to strip off[140] your old self,[141] which is being ruined by its deceptive desires,[142] 23to be renewed in the spirit of your minds, 24and to clothe yourselves with the new self[143] that was created according to the likeness of God[144] in righteousness and true holiness.[145]

Living As God’s People

25Therefore, stripping off falsehood, “let each of us speak the truth to his neighbor,”[146] for we are members[147] of one another. 26“Be angry, yet do not sin.”[148] Don’t let the sun go down on your wrath,[149] 27and don’t give the devil any opportunity to work.[150] 28The thief must no longer steal. Instead, he must work hard and do what is good with his own hands[151] so that he will have something to give to the needy.

29Let no filthy talk come out of your mouths,[152] but only what is good for building up as the need may be.[153] This way you will give grace to those who hear you. 30Don’t cause God’s Holy Spirit to be sad.[154]You were marked with a seal by him for the day of redemption.[155] 31Let all bitterness, wrath, anger, quarreling, and slander[156] be put away from you, along with all hatred. 32Be kind to one another, compassionate, forgiving one another[157] just as God has forgiven[158] you[159] in Christ.

Chapter      5

1So be imitators of God, as his dear children. 2Live[160] in love as Christ also loved us[161] and gave himself for us as an offering and sacrifice, a fragrant aroma to God. 3Don’t let sexual sin, impurity of any kind, or greed even be mentioned among you, as is proper for saints. 4Obscene, flippant, or vulgar talk is totally inappropriate. Instead, let there be thanksgiving. 5For you know very well that no immoral or impure person, or[162] anyone who is greedy (that is, an idolater), has an inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God.

Living in the Light

6Don’t let anyone deceive you with meaningless words. It is because of these things that God’s wrath comes on those who are disobedient.[163] 7So don’t be partners with them. 8Once you were darkness,[164] but now you are light in the Lord. Live[165] as children of light. 9The fruit of the light[166] consists in every form of goodness, righteousness, and truth.[167] 10Determine what pleases the Lord, 11and have nothing to do with the unfruitful works of darkness. Instead, expose them for what they are. 12For it is shameful even to mention what is done by people[168] in secret. 13But everything that is exposed to the light becomes visible, 14for everything that is visible is light.[169] That’s why it says,

“Wake up, sleeper!

Rise from the dead,

And Christ will shine on you.”[170]

Wise Behavior

15So be careful how you live.[171] Don’t be unwise but wise,[172] 16making the best use of time[173] because the days are evil. 17Don’t be foolish, but understand[174] what the Lord’s will is.[175] 18Stop getting drunk with wine, which leads to wild living. Instead, keep on being filled with the Spirit. 19Then you will recite to one another psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs.[176] You will sing and make music[177] to the Lord with your hearts. 20You will always give thanks to God the Father[178] for everything in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 21And you will submit yourselves to one another out of reverence for[179] Christ.

22Wives, submit yourselves[180] to your husbands as to the Lord. 23For the husband is the head[181] of his wife as Christ is the head[182] of the church. It is he who is the Savior of the body.[183] 24As the church is submissive to Christ, so wives must be submissive[184] to their husbands in everything.

25Husbands, love your wives as Christ loved the church and gave himself for it. 26He did this to make[185] it holy by cleansing it, washing it with water[186] and the word. 27Then he could present the church to himself in all its glory, without a spot or wrinkle[187] or[188] anything of the kind, but holy and without fault.[189] 28In the same way, husbands must love their wives as they love their own bodies.[190] A man who loves his wife loves himself. 29For no one has ever hated his own[191] body. Instead, he feeds and takes care[192] of it, as Christ takes care of the church.[193] 30For we are parts of his body[194]—of his flesh and of his bones.[195] 31“That’s why a man will leave his father and mother and be united with his wife, and[196] the two will become one flesh.”[197] 32This is a great secret, but I am talking about[198] Christ and the church. 33But each individual man among you must love his wife as he loves himself,[199] and a wife must respect her husband.

Chapter      6

Advice for Children and Parents

1Children, obey your parents in the Lord,[200] for this is the right thing to do. 2“Honor your father and mother.” This is a very important commandment with a promise: 3“so that it may go well for you, and you may have a long life on the earth.”[201]

4Fathers, don’t make your children angry. Instead, bring them up in the training[202] and instruction of the Lord.

Advice for Slaves and Masters

5Slaves, obey your earthly masters with fear and trembling.[203] Do this with sincerity,[204] as when you obey Christ.[205] 6Don’t do this only while being watched in order to please them. Obey like[206] slaves of Christ who do God’s will from the heart. 7Serve willingly, as if you were serving[207] the Lord and not merely people.[208] 8You know that everyone will receive a reward from the Lord for whatever good[209] he has done, whether he is a slave or free.

9Masters, treat your slaves[210] the same way. Don’t threaten them, for you know that both of you have the same Master in heaven. There is no favoritism with him.

Putting on the Whole Armor of God

10Finally, be strong in the Lord and in his mighty strength.[211] 11Put on the whole armor of God[212] so that you may be able to stand against the devil’s strategies.[213] 12For our[214] struggle is not against a human opponent,[215] but against rulers, against authorities, against cosmic powers in the darkness around us,[216] against[217] evil spiritual forces[218] in the heavenly realm. 13For this reason, take up the whole armor of God so that you may be able to take a stand in that evil day.[219] When you have done everything you could, you will be able to stand firm. 14Take a stand,[220] then! Fasten the belt of truth around your waist. Put on the breastplate of righteousness. 15Put[221] shoes on your feet so that you are ready to proclaim the gospel of peace.[222] 16In addition to all of these, pick up the shield of faith.[223] With it you will be able to put out all the flaming arrows[224] of the evil one. 17Also take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God.[225]

18Pray in the Spirit at all times with every kind of prayer[226] and request there is. For the same reason be alert[227] with every kind of effort and request for all the saints. 19Pray also for me,[228] so that, when I open my mouth,[229] the right words will be given to me. Then I will boldly make known the secret of the gospel, 20for whose sake I am an ambassador in chains.[230] I desire to declare it as boldly[231] as I should![232]

Final Greeting

21So that you may know what has happened to me and how I am doing, Tychicus, our dear brother and a faithful minister in the Lord, will tell you everything. 22I’m sending him to you for this very reason, so that you may know how we’re doing and that he may encourage your hearts.[233]

23May the brothers have peace and love, with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ! 24May all who love the Lord Jesus Christ with sincerity have his grace![234]

[1] 1:1 The Gk. lacks From.

[2] 1:1 Or to the saints and faithful

[3] 1:1 Other mss. lack in Ephesus

[4] 1:3 Figure: benedictio, expression of feeling by giving a blessing

[5] 1:3 Figure: polyptoton, eulogetos…eulogesas…eulogia, emphasis on blessing

[6] 1:5 Figure: hypallage, “his pleasing will” see also v 9,11

[7] 1:6 Lit. to the praise of

[8] 1:6 Figure: polyptoton, charitos…echaritosen, emphasis on grace

[9] 1:7 Figure: metalepsis, blood put for blood-shedding put for what was accomplished by his death

[10] 1:7 Figure: anthropopatheia, riches attributed to God, idioma, riches stand for great quantity of something

[11] 1:7 Lit. his

[12] 1:8 Figure: hendiadys, one thing meant – wise understanding

[13] 1:9 Figure: hypallage, “his secret purpose or will”

[14] 1:9 Lit. him

[15] 1:10 Or administer

[16] 1:10 Figure: metonymy (of time) – stands for the ending of all history

[17] 1:10 Figure: anaphora, emphasis on how ALL will be gathered up in Christ

[18] 1:11 Lit. him; 1:11,13 Figure: repetitio, “in whom” emphasis on “in Christ”, 2x in v 13

[19] 1:11 Or predestined

[20] 1:11 Figure: hypallage, “his intended will”

[21] 1:12 Lit. So that we

[22] 1:13 Figure: antimereia, “the true word”; also synecdoche, word stands for all revelation

[23] 1:13 Lit. the Spirit of promise, Figure: antimereia, “the promised Spirit”; also hyperbaton, exchange of word order emphasizes “Holy”

[24] 1:14 Lit. of the possession, Figure: epitrechon, parenthesis explains that the Holy Spirit is a guarantee.

[25] 1:15 Other mss. lack your love.

[26] 1:17 Lit. That

[27] 1:17 Lit. the Father of glory, Figure: antimereia, “the glorious Father”

[28] 1:17 Figure: hendiadys, one thing meant, “wise revelation”

[29] 1:17 Lit. him

[30] 1:18 Figure: prosopopeia (personification); also hypocatastasis, heart = inner mind

[31] 1:18 Figure: antimereia, dual genitive, “glorious riches of his inheritance”; also, anthropopatheia, wealth and inheritance attributed to God; idioma, riches = plenty

[32] 1:19 Figure: antimereia, dual genitive, “mighty working of his strength”

[33] 1:19 Lit. Which he put to work

[34] 1:20 Figure: anthropopatheia, right hand; also hypocatastasis, right hand = place of blessing

[35] 1:21 Figure: polysyndeton, consider each kind of authority; also polyptoton, onomatos… onamazomenou, emphasis on every name

[36] 1:21 Figure: ellipsis, [the one] or [the age]

[37] 1:22 Lit. He

[38] 1:22 Figure: repetitio, panta, emphasis on everything

[39] 1:22 Figure: hypocatastasis, feet = dominion

[40] 1:22 Lit. for the church

[41] 1:23 Figure: metaphor, church represented by body

[42] 1:23 Figure: polyptoton, pleroma…pleroumenou, emphasis on fullness; also homeopropheron, “p” pleroma, panta, pasin, pleroumenou

[43] 1:23 Or all in all

[44] 2:1 Figure: ellipsis, Lit. you, being dead, [God has filled or is filling]

[45] 2:2 Figure: antimereia, “’this worldly age”

[46] 2:2 Figure: antimereia, dual genitive, “exercising ruler of the air”; also synecdoche, air stands for all the heavenly realm.

[47] 2:2 Lit. the sons of disobedience, Figure: idioma, emphasis on disobedient

[48] 2:3 Or lived among

[49] 2:3 Figure: hypocatastasis, flesh = physical bodies

[50] 2:3 Lit. were children of wrath, Figure: idioma, emphasis on wrath; also prosopopeia, personifies wrath

[51] 2:4 Lit. love with which he loved us, Figure: polyptoton, agapen…agapesen, emphasis on love

[52] 2:5 Other mss. read in .

[53] 2:5 Figure: epitrechon, parenthesis explains how we are made alive

[54] 2:5,6 Figure: homeopropheron, sun, ‘together with”, vs 6 2x

[55] 2:6,7,10 Figure: epibole, “in Christ Jesus” repeated for emphasis

[56] 2:7 Lit. So that

[57] 2:7 Figure: anthropopatheia, riches attributed to God; also idioma, riches stand for plenty

[58] 2:10 Or workmanship

[59] 2:10 Lit. so that we might walk in them, Figure: idioma, walk = to live

[60] 2:11 Lit. in the flesh

[61] 2:11 Figure: periphrasis, circumcision made in the flesh by hands = the Judeans

[62] 2:12 Or the commonwealth of Israel

[63] 2:12 Figure: antimereia, “the promised covenants”

[64] 2:13 Figure: metalepsis, blood put for blood-shedding put for Jesus’ death and all that was accomplished by it

[65] 2:14 Figure: metaphor, Jesus represented by peace; also analocuthon, change to “our”

[66] 2:14 Figure: hypocatastasis, flesh = what he did in his physical life

[67] 2:14 Figure: hypocatastasis, wall = separation; also antimereia, “the partitioning wall”; also epanadiplosis, “enmity” – encircles passage (see v. 16)

[68] 2:14 Lit. the dividing wall, the hostility

[69] 2:15 Figure: synecdoche, new man = group of human beings

[70] 2:16 Figure: hypocatastasis, body = the church

[71] 2:16 Figure: metonymy (of cause), cross = Jesus’ death

[72] 2:17 Figure: merismos, far and near = all; also ellipsis, [peace to you]

[73] 2:18 I.e. both Jews and Gentiles

[74] 2:19 Figure: hendiadys, “foreign sojourners”; also paramegnon, v. 19-22, words from same root “to build”: paroikoi, oikeioi, epoikodomethentes, oikdome, sunoikodomeisthe, katoiketerion

[75] 2:19: Figure: ellipsis, [members] or [fellow-members]

[76] 2:20 Or capstone; Figure: metaphor, Jesus Christ represented by a capstone

[77] 2:21 Figure: illustration, extended hypocatastasis, v. 20-22, many comparisons with temple = the church

[78] 2:3,4 Figure: epitrechon, parenthesis explains about the secret

[79] 3:5 Lit. it was not

[80] 3:5 Lit. the sons of men; Figure: idioma, usage of “sons of”

[81] 3:5 Lit. his

[82] 3:6 Figure: homeopropheron, “fellow” = sun, together with

[83] 3:6 Lit. of the promise; Figure: metonymy (of cause), means the covenant relationship, benefits of the promise

[84] 3:7 Lit. a servant according to

[85] 3:7 Figure: hypallage, “his powerful working”

[86] 3:8 Figure: meiosis, belittling emphasizes grace

[87] 3:8 Figure: idioma, riches are great amount of something; also anthropopatheia, wealth attributed to Christ

[88] 3:9 Figure: homeopropheron, apo, “hidden away, away from”

[89] 3:9 Figure: metonymy (of time), ages = history of the ages

[90] 3:10 Lit. So that

[91] 3:10 Figure: hendiadys, “ruling authorities”

[92] 3:10 Figure: hypallage, Lit. purpose of the ages = “eternal purpose”

[93] 3:11 Lit. he

[94] 3:12 Figure: homeopropheron, alliteration with letter “p” – parrhesian, prosagogen, pepoithesei, pisteos

[95] 3:12 Or through faith in him; Figure: metonymy (of effect), Lit. faith of him means “faithfulness, or faith in him.”

[96] 3:14 Figure: epanalepsis, resumption from 3:1

[97] 3:14 Figure: idioma, means to pray

[98] 3:14 Other mss. lack of our Lord Jesus Christ.

[99] 3:15 Or all fatherhood; Figure: synecdoche, family means all created beings

[100] 3:15 Figure: epitrechon, parenthesis explains the “you” of v. 16

[101] 3:16 Lit. That he would give you

[102] 3:16 Figure: antimereia, Lit. the riches of his glory, “his glorious riches”; also idioma, riches = great quantity; also anthropopatheia, wealth attributed to God

[103] 3:16 Figure: hypocatastasis, Lit. inner man = inner self

[104] 3:18 Figure: antiprosopopeia, comparison to plants (rooted) and buildings (founded); also homeoptoton, endings “menoi”, both masc. part. perf. mid.

[105] 3:18 Figure: polysyndeton, consider each description carefully

[106] 3:19 Figure: polyptoton (2x), gnonai…gnoseos, plerothete…pleroma

[107] 3:20 Or in

[108] 3:21 Figure: benedictio, used as doxology

[109] 3:21 Figure: idioma, Lit. of the ages of the ages, means “forever and ever”

[110] 4:1 Figure: epitrechon, parenthesis elaborating on “I”

[111] 4:1 Figure: idioma, Lit. to walk, walk = to live

[112] 4:1 Figure: polyptoton, kleseos…eklethete, emphasis on the calling

[113] 4:3 Figure: metonymy (of effect), means bond that brings peace

[114] 4:4 Figure: ellipsis [there is]

[115] 4:4 Figure: polyptoton, eklethete…kleseos, emphasis on calling

[116] 4:4-6 Figure: anaphora, emphasis on one; also synathroesmos, enumeration of shared elements

[117] 4:6 Figure: hendiadys, emphasis on both God and Father

[118] 4:6 Figure: epistrophe, panton, emphasis on all; also polysyndeton, Lit. over all AND through all AND in all

[119] 4:8 Lit. it says

[120] 4:8 Figure: polyptoton (2x), echmaloteusen aichmalosian, emphasis on led captive and edoken domata, emphasis on giving

[121] 4:8 Ps 68:18

[122] 4:9 Other mss. read had first gone down.

[123] 4:9 Or to the lower parts, that is, the earth

[124] 4:9,10 Figure: parenthesis, explained in context of verses

[125] 4:11 Figure: polysyndeton, emphasis on each ministry gift, Lit. and

[126] 4:12 Figure: hypocatastasis, body = the church

[127] 4:13 Figure: antimereia, triple genitive, Lit. the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ, “the mature full standard of Christ”

[128] 4:14 Figure: hypocatastasis, implies weakness, not able to care for themselves

[129] 4:14 Figure: simile, “like waves”; also ellipsis, [ships]; also antiprosopaeia, comparison to ships that are blown about by wind

[130] 4:14 Figure: prosopopeia, emphasizes the power of erroneous teaching

[131] 4:14 Figure: metonymy (of cause), Lit. of the error, means the error that leads astray

[132] 4:15 Figure: metaphor, head of the body is Christ; also illustration, extended hypocatastasis in v. 15-16, comparison of the body to the church

[133] 4:16 Figure: homeopropheron, sun, “together with”

[134] 4:16 Figure: metonymy (of effect), Lit. of the supply, supply = spirit

[135] 4:17 Or testify

[136] 4:17 Figure: idioma, walk = to live

[137] 4:17 Lit. in the worthlessness of their mind

[138] 4:19 Figure: paramegnon, root, “mind”, nous, dianoia, agnoian

[139] 4:19 Figure: antimereia, Lit. the working of uncleanness, “unclean practice”

[140] 4:22 Lit. Regarding your former way of life to strip off

[141] 4:22 Figure: hypocatastasis, Lit. old man = old self

[142] 4:22 Figure: antimereia, Lit. desires of the deceit, “deceitful desires”

[143] 4:24 Figure: hypocatastasis, Lit. new man = new creation in Christ

[144] 4:24 Lit. according to God

[145] 4:24 Figure: hendiadys, “righteous holiness”; also antimereia, Lit. holiness of truth, “true holiness”

[146] 4:25 Zech 8:16

[147] 4:25 Figure: hypocatastasis, members are comparison to body

[148] 4:26 Ps 4:4

[149] 4:26 Figure: polyptoton, orgizesthe…parogismo, emphasis on anger

[150] 4:27 Lit. an opportunity

[151] 4:28 Figure: synecdoche, hands = whole self

[152] 4:29 Figure: idioma, out of your mouth = speaking

[153] 4:29 Figure: antiptosis, Lit. of the need

[154] 4:30 or grieved; Figure: anthropopatheia, grieving attributed to God

[155] 4:30 Figure: metonymy (of time), day = time period

[156] 4:31 Figure: polysyndeton, consider each element carefully

[157] 4:32 Figure: asyndeton, consider these as group, conclusion is forgiveness

[158] 4:32 Figure: polyptoton, charizomenoi…echarisato, emphasis on forgiveness

[159] 4:32 Other mss. read us. “us” is the figure: anacoluthon

[160] 5:2 Figure: idioma, walk = to live

[161] 5:2 Other mss. read you; Figure: analocuthon, change in preposition to US

[162] 5:5 Figure: paradiastole, emphasis on each kind

[163] 5:6 Lit. the sons of disobedience; Figure: idioma, “sons”; also antimereia, “disobedient ones”

[164] 5:8 Figure: metaphor, darkness and light

[165] 5:8 Figure: idioma, walk = to live

[166] 5:9 Other mss. read Spirit.

[167] 5:9 Figure: hendiatris, three for one; also parembole, complete parenthesis, needs context

[168] 5:12 Lit. them

[169] 5:13 Figure: epanados, photos phaneroutai…phanerooumenon phos, introversion

[170] 5:14 The source of this quote is unknown; Figure: paroemia, proverb

[171] 5:15 Figure: idioma, walk = to live

[172] 5:15 Figure: paramegnon, asophoi…sophoi; also pleonasm, emphasis on “wise”

[173] 5:16 Or buying up the time; Figure: metonymy(of time) = what is done in the time “opportunity”

[174] 5:17 Figure: pleonasm, emphasis on “understanding”

[175] 5:15-17 Figure: chiasmus, A-B-C-C-B-A, central element is “redeeming the time”

[176] 5:19 Figure: polysyndeton, consider each kind of song

[177] 5:19 Figure: hendiadys, one thing meant

[178] 5:20 Lit. to God and Father; Figure: hendiadys, one thing meant “God the Father”

[179] 5:21 Or in the fear of

[180] 5:22 Other mss. lack submit yourselves.

[181] 5:23 Figure: metaphor, comparison of husband to head of a team

[182] 5:23 Figure: simile, comparison of husband to Christ; also metaphor, comparison of Christ to head of team (the church)

[183] 5:23 Figure: hypocatastasis, body = church; Note all the comparison figures in this passage

[184] 5:24 Lit. so wives

[185] 5:26 Lit. To make

[186] 5:26 Figure: metonymy, water = salvation

[187] 5:27 Figure: hypocatastasis, implies comparison to a bride

[188] 5:27 Figure: paradiastole, emphasis on “no such thing”

[189] 5:27 Figure: hendiadys, one thing meant

[190] 5:28 Lit. as their own bodies; Figure: simile, comparison of care for own physical bodies with wife’s

[191] 5:28 Figure: homeoleteuton, heauton, like inflections

[192] 5:29 Figure: hendiadys, “cherishing nourishment”

[193] 5:29 Lit. as Christ the church; Figure: ellipsis, [takes care]; v 26-29 illustration, implied comparison to a bride

[194] 5:30 Figure: metaphor, church is represented as a body

[195] 5:30 Other mss. lack of his flesh and of his bones.

[196] 5:31 Figure: polysyndeton, consider each phrase

[197] 5:31 Gen 2:24; Figure: hypocatastasis, flesh = physical life

[198] 5:32 Figure: anaphora, “about Christ and about the church”

[199] 5:33 Lit. as himself; Figure: ellipsis, [he loves]; also simile

[200] 6:1 Other mss. lack in the Lord.

[201] 6:3 Exod 20:12; Deut 5:16

[202] 6:4 Or discipline; Figure: hendiadys, “disciplined training”

[203] 6:5 Figure: metonymy (of effect), trembling = obedience

[204] 6:5 Lit. With sincerity of your heart; Figure: hypocatastasis, heart = inner self, or inner feelings

[205] 6:5 Lit. as to Christ

[206] 6:6 Lit. But like; Figure: simile, comparison of slave to servant of Christ

[207] 6:6-8 Figure: paramegnon, ophthalmodeouleian…douloi…douleuontes…doulos, emphasis on service

[208] 6:7 Lit. as to the Lord and not people

[209] 6:8 Figure: hyperbaton, adjective is placed last for emphasis

[210] 6:9 Lit. them

[211] 6:10 Figure: antimereia, Lit. might of his strength, “his mighty power”

[212] 6:10-18 Figure: illustration (extended hypocatastasis), implied comparison with Roman soldier

[213] 6:11 Or schemes

[214] 6:12 Other mss. read your. Figure: analocuthon, change of pronoun

[215] 6:12 Lit. flesh and blood; Figure: synecdoche, = human beings

[216] 6:12 Lit. this darkness; Figure: antimereia, dual genitive, “the dark world rulers of the age”

[217] 6:12 Figure: anaphora, “against”

[218] 6:12 Figure: heterosis, both words change form, Lit. “the spirituals of the wickedness”

[219] 6:13 Figure: metonymy (of time), day = period of time

[220] 6:13-14 Figure: anadiplosis, “stand”

[221] 6:13-15 Figure: homeoteleuton, ending “menoi” – having worked out, having girded, having put on, having shod

[222] 6:15 Lit. in readiness for the gospel of peace; Figure: metonymy (of effect), good news brings peace

[223] 6:16 Figure: metonymy (of effect), faith in the power of his name and protection

[224] 6:16 Figure: hypocatastasis, darts = Satanic temptations

[225] 6:17 Figure: metaphor, word compared to sword; also hypocatastasis, word stands for all revelation

[226] 6:18 Figure: polyptoton, proseuches…prosuchomenoi, emphasis on prayer

[227] 6:18 Figure: metonymy (of effect), Lit. lying sleepless = “watching” or “being alert”

[228] 6:19 Lit. And for me

[229] 6:19 Figure: idioma, means “to speak”

[230] 6:20 Figure: epitrechon, additional explanation; also, hypotimesis, under-evaluating of his imprisonment

[231] 6:20 Figure: polyptoton, parrhesia…parrhesiasomai, emphasis on boldness

[232] 6:20 Lit. as I should speak

[233] 6:22 Figure: hypocatastasis, heart represents innermost feelings

[234] 6:24 Other mss. read his grace. Amen.

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